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     Idaho Statutes

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TITLE 49
MOTOR VEHICLES
CHAPTER 1
DEFINITIONS
49-123.  Definitions -- V.[effective until july 8, 2014] (1) "Variable load suspension axle" means an axle or axles designed to support a part of the vehicle and load and which can be regulated to vary the amount of load supported by such an axle or axles and which can be deployed or lifted by the operator of the vehicle. (See also section 49-117, Idaho Code)
(a)  "Fully raised" means that the variable load suspension axle is in an elevated position preventing the tires on such axle from having any contact with the roadway.
(b)  "Fully deployed" means that the variable load suspension axle is supporting a portion of the weight of the loaded vehicle as controlled by the preset pressure regulator valve.
(2)  "Vehicle" means:
(a)  General. Every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks.
(b)  Assembled vehicle or vessel. A vehicle or vessel, not including a salvage vehicle or vessel, that has been constructed using major component parts from two (2) or more vehicles or vessels or that has been repaired using new factory major component parts so that the resulting vehicle or vessel has the same appearance as a vehicle or vessel that was manufactured under a specific make and model by a manufacturer. A vehicle or vessel utilizing a kit for the entire body or a glider kit vehicle is not an assembled vehicle.
(c)  Authorized emergency vehicle. Vehicles operated by any fire department or law enforcement agency of the state of Idaho or any political subdivision of the state, ambulances, vehicles belonging to personnel of voluntary fire departments while in performance of official duties only, vehicles belonging to, or operated by EMS personnel certified or otherwise recognized by the EMS bureau of the Idaho department of health and welfare while in the performance of emergency medical services, sheriff's search and rescue vehicles which are under the immediate supervision of the county sheriff, wreckers which are engaged in motor vehicle recovery operations and are blocking part or all of one (1) or more lanes of traffic, other emergency vehicles designated by the director of the Idaho state police or vehicles authorized by the Idaho transportation board and used in the enforcement of laws specified in section 40-510, Idaho Code, pertaining to vehicles of ten thousand (10,000) pounds or greater.
(d)  Commercial vehicle or commercial motor vehicle. For the purposes of chapters 3 and 9 of this title, driver's licenses and vehicle equipment, a motor vehicle or combination of motor vehicles designed or used to transport passengers or property if the motor vehicle:
(i)   Has a manufacturer's gross combination weight rating (GCWR) in excess of twenty-six thousand (26,000) pounds inclusive of a towed unit with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than ten thousand (10,000) pounds; or
(ii)  Has a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) in excess of twenty-six thousand (26,000) pounds; or
(iii) Is designed to transport sixteen (16) or more people, including the driver; or
(iv)  Is of any size and is used in the transportation of materials found to be hazardous for the purposes of the hazardous material transportation act and which require the motor vehicle to be placarded under the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR part 172, subpart F).
For the purposes of chapter 4, title 49, Idaho Code, motor vehicle registration, a vehicle or combination of vehicles of a type used or maintained for the transportation of persons for hire, compensation or profit, or the transportation of property for the owner of the vehicle, or for hire, compensation, or profit, and shall include fixed load specially constructed vehicles exceeding the limits imposed by chapter 10, title 49, Idaho Code, and including drilling rigs, construction, drilling and wrecker cranes, log jammers, log loaders, and similar vehicles which are normally operated in an overweight or oversize condition or both, but shall not include those vehicles registered pursuant to sections 49-402 and 49-402A, Idaho Code, or exempted by section 49-426, Idaho Code. A motor vehicle used in a ridesharing arrangement that has a seating capacity for not more than fifteen (15) persons, including the driver, shall not be a "commercial vehicle" under the provisions of this title relating to equipment requirements, rules of the road, or registration.
(e)  Farm vehicle. A vehicle or combination of vehicles owned by a farmer or rancher, which are operated over public highways, and used exclusively to transport unprocessed agricultural, dairy or livestock products raised, owned and grown by the owner of the vehicle to market or place of storage; and shall include the transportation by the farmer or rancher of any equipment, supplies or products purchased by that farmer or rancher for his own use, and used in the farming or ranching operation or used by a farmer partly in transporting agricultural products or livestock from the farm of another farmer that were originally grown or raised on the farm, or when used partly in transporting agricultural supplies, equipment, materials or livestock to the farm of another farmer for use or consumption on the farm but not transported for hire, and shall not include vehicles of husbandry or vehicles registered pursuant to sections 49-402 and 49-402A, Idaho Code.
(f)  Foreign vehicle. Every vehicle of a type required to be registered under the provisions of this title brought into this state from another state, territory or country other than in the ordinary course of business by or through a manufacturer or dealer and not registered in this state.
(g)  Glider kit vehicle. Every large truck manufactured from a kit manufactured by a manufacturer of large trucks which consists of a frame, cab complete with wiring, instruments, fenders and hood and front axles and wheels. The "glider kit" is made into a complete assembly by the addition of the engine, transmission, rear axles, wheels and tires.
(h)  Motor vehicle. Every vehicle which is self-propelled, and for the purpose of titling and registration meets federal motor vehicle safety standards as defined in section 49-107, Idaho Code. Motor vehicle does not include vehicles moved solely by human power, electric personal assistive mobility devices and motorized wheelchairs or other such vehicles that are specifically exempt from titling or registration requirements under title 49, Idaho Code.
(i)  Multipurpose passenger vehicle (MPV). For the purposes of section 49-966, Idaho Code, a motor vehicle designed to carry ten (10) or fewer persons which is constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road operation.
(j)  Neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV). A self-propelled, electrically powered, four-wheeled motor vehicle which is emission free and conforms to the definition and requirements for low-speed vehicles as adopted in the federal motor vehicle safety standards for low-speed vehicles under federal regulations at 49 CFR part 571. An NEV shall be titled, registered and insured according to law as provided respectively in chapters 4, 5 and 12, title 49, Idaho Code, and shall only be operated by a licensed driver. Operation of an NEV on a highway shall be allowed as provided in section 49-663, Idaho Code.
(k)  Noncommercial vehicle. For the purposes of chapter 4, title 49, Idaho Code, motor vehicle registration, a noncommercial vehicle shall not include those vehicles required to be registered under sections 49-402 and 49-402A, Idaho Code, and means all other vehicles or combinations of vehicles which are not commercial vehicles or farm vehicles, but shall include motor homes. A noncommercial vehicle shall include those vehicles having a combined gross weight not in excess of sixty thousand (60,000) pounds and not held out for hire, used for purposes related to private use and not used in the furtherance of a business or occupation for compensation or profit or for transporting goods for other than the owner.
(l)  Passenger car. For the purposes of section 49-966, Idaho Code, a motor vehicle, except a multipurpose passenger vehicle, motorcycle or trailer, designed to carry ten (10) or fewer persons.
(m)  Rebuilt salvage vehicle or vessel. Every vehicle or vessel previously determined or declared to be a salvage vehicle that has been rebuilt or repaired using like make and model parts and visually appears as a vehicle or vessel that was originally constructed under a distinctive manufacturer. This includes a salvage vehicle or vessel which is damaged to the extent that a "rebuilt salvage" brand is required to be added to the title.
(n)  Replica vehicle or vessel. A vehicle or vessel made to replicate any vehicle or vessel previously manufactured, using metal, fiberglass or other composite materials. Replica vehicles must look like the original vehicle being replicated but may use a more modern drive train. At a minimum, replica vehicles shall meet the same federal motor vehicle safety and emission standards in effect for the year and type of vehicle being replicated.
(o)  Salvage vehicle or vessel. Any vehicle or vessel for which a salvage certificate of title, salvage bill of sale or other documentation has been issued showing evidence that the vehicle or vessel has been declared salvage or which has been damaged to the extent that the owner, or an insurer, or other person acting on behalf of the owner, determines that the cost of parts and labor minus the salvage value makes it uneconomical to repair or rebuild. When an insurance company has paid money or has made other monetary settlement as compensation for a total loss of any vehicle or vessel, such vehicle shall be considered to be a salvage vehicle or vessel.
(p)  Specially constructed vehicle or vessel. Every vehicle or vessel of a type required to be registered not originally constructed under a distinctive name, make, model or type by a generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles or vessels and not materially altered from its original construction and cannot be visually identified as a vehicle or vessel produced by a particular manufacturer. This includes:
(i)   A vehicle or vessel that has been structurally modified so that it does not have the same appearance as a similar vehicle or vessel from the same manufacturer; or
(ii)  A vehicle or vessel that has been constructed entirely from homemade parts and materials not obtained from other vehicles or vessels; or
(iii) A vehicle or vessel that has been constructed by using major component parts from one (1) or more manufactured vehicles or vessels and cannot be identified as a specific make or model; or
(iv)  A vehicle or vessel constructed by the use of a custom kit that cannot be visually identified as a specific make or model. All specially constructed vehicles of a type required to be registered shall be certified by the owner to meet all applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards in effect at the time construction is completed, and all requirements of chapter 9, title 49, Idaho Code.
(q)  Specialty off-highway vehicle. A specialty off-highway vehicle as defined in section 67-7101, Idaho Code.
(r)  Total loss vehicle. Every vehicle that is deemed to be uneconomical to repair. A total loss shall occur when an insurance company or any other person pays or makes other monetary settlement to the owner when it is deemed to be uneconomical to repair the damaged vehicle. The compensation for total loss as defined herein shall not include payments by an insurer or other person for medical care, bodily injury, vehicle rental or for anything other than the amount paid for the actual damage to the vehicle.
(3)  "Vehicle identification number." (See "identifying number," section 49-110, Idaho Code)
(4)  "Vehicle salesman" means any person who, for a salary, commission or compensation of any kind, is employed either directly or indirectly, or regularly or occasionally by any dealer to sell, purchase or exchange, or to negotiate for the sale, purchase or exchange of vehicles. (See also "full-time salesman," section 49-107, Idaho Code, and "part-time salesman," section 49-117, Idaho Code)
(5)  "Vessel." (See section 67-7003, Idaho Code)
(6)  "Veteran." (See section 65-502, Idaho Code)
(7)  "Violation" means a conviction of a misdemeanor charge involving a moving traffic violation, or an admission or judicial determination of the commission of an infraction involving a moving traffic infraction, except bicycle infractions.
49-123.  Definitions -- V.[effective july 8, 2014] (1) "Variable load suspension axle" means an axle or axles designed to support a part of the vehicle and load and which can be regulated to vary the amount of load supported by such an axle or axles and which can be deployed or lifted by the operator of the vehicle. (See also section 49-117, Idaho Code)
(a)  "Fully raised" means that the variable load suspension axle is in an elevated position preventing the tires on such axle from having any contact with the roadway.
(b)  "Fully deployed" means that the variable load suspension axle is supporting a portion of the weight of the loaded vehicle as controlled by the preset pressure regulator valve.
(2)  "Vehicle" means:
(a)  General. Every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks.
(b)  Assembled vehicle or vessel. A vehicle or vessel, not including a salvage vehicle or vessel, that has been constructed using major component parts from two (2) or more vehicles or vessels or that has been repaired using new factory major component parts so that the resulting vehicle or vessel has the same appearance as a vehicle or vessel that was manufactured under a specific make and model by a manufacturer. A vehicle or vessel utilizing a kit for the entire body or a glider kit vehicle is not an assembled vehicle.
(c)  Authorized emergency vehicle. Vehicles operated by any fire department or law enforcement agency of the state of Idaho or any political subdivision of the state, ambulances, vehicles belonging to personnel of voluntary fire departments while in performance of official duties only, vehicles belonging to, or operated by EMS personnel certified or otherwise recognized by the EMS bureau of the Idaho department of health and welfare while in the performance of emergency medical services, sheriff's search and rescue vehicles which are under the immediate supervision of the county sheriff, wreckers which are engaged in motor vehicle recovery operations and are blocking part or all of one (1) or more lanes of traffic, other emergency vehicles designated by the director of the Idaho state police or vehicles authorized by the Idaho transportation board and used in the enforcement of laws specified in section 40-510, Idaho Code, pertaining to vehicles of ten thousand (10,000) pounds or greater.
(d)  Commercial vehicle or commercial motor vehicle. For the purposes of chapters 3 and 9 of this title, driver's licenses and vehicle equipment, a motor vehicle or combination of motor vehicles designed or used to transport passengers or property if the motor vehicle:
(i)   Has a manufacturer's gross combination weight rating (GCWR) in excess of twenty-six thousand (26,000) pounds inclusive of a towed unit with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than ten thousand (10,000) pounds; or
(ii)  Has a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) in excess of twenty-six thousand (26,000) pounds; or
(iii) Is designed to transport sixteen (16) or more people, including the driver; or
(iv)  Is of any size and is used in the transportation of materials found to be hazardous for the purposes of the hazardous material transportation act and which require the motor vehicle to be placarded under the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR part 172, subpart F).
For the purposes of chapter 4, title 49, Idaho Code, motor vehicle registration, a vehicle or combination of vehicles of a type used or maintained for the transportation of persons for hire, compensation or profit, or the transportation of property for the owner of the vehicle, or for hire, compensation, or profit, and shall include fixed load specially constructed vehicles exceeding the limits imposed by chapter 10, title 49, Idaho Code, and including drilling rigs, construction, drilling and wrecker cranes, log jammers, log loaders, and similar vehicles which are normally operated in an overweight or oversize condition or both, but shall not include those vehicles registered pursuant to sections 49-402 and 49-402A, Idaho Code, or exempted by section 49-426, Idaho Code. A motor vehicle used in a ridesharing arrangement that has a seating capacity for not more than fifteen (15) persons, including the driver, shall not be a "commercial vehicle" under the provisions of this title relating to equipment requirements, rules of the road, or registration.
(e)  Farm vehicle. A vehicle or combination of vehicles owned by a farmer or rancher, which are operated over public highways, and used exclusively to transport unprocessed agricultural, dairy or livestock products raised, owned and grown by the owner of the vehicle to market or place of storage; and shall include the transportation by the farmer or rancher of any equipment, supplies or products purchased by that farmer or rancher for his own use, and used in the farming or ranching operation or used by a farmer partly in transporting agricultural products or livestock from the farm of another farmer that were originally grown or raised on the farm, or when used partly in transporting agricultural supplies, equipment, materials or livestock to the farm of another farmer for use or consumption on the farm but not transported for hire, and shall not include vehicles of husbandry or vehicles registered pursuant to sections 49-402 and 49-402A, Idaho Code.
(f)  Foreign vehicle. Every vehicle of a type required to be registered under the provisions of this title brought into this state from another state, territory or country other than in the ordinary course of business by or through a manufacturer or dealer and not registered in this state.
(g)  Glider kit vehicle. Every large truck manufactured from a kit manufactured by a manufacturer of large trucks which consists of a frame, cab complete with wiring, instruments, fenders and hood and front axles and wheels. The "glider kit" is made into a complete assembly by the addition of the engine, transmission, rear axles, wheels and tires.
(h)  Motor vehicle. Every vehicle which is self-propelled, and for the purpose of titling and registration meets federal motor vehicle safety standards as defined in section 49-107, Idaho Code. Motor vehicle does not include vehicles moved solely by human power, electric personal assistive mobility devices and motorized wheelchairs or other such vehicles that are specifically exempt from titling or registration requirements under title 49, Idaho Code.
(i)  Multipurpose passenger vehicle (MPV). For the purposes of section 49-966, Idaho Code, a motor vehicle designed to carry ten (10) or fewer persons which is constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road operation.
(j)  Neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV). A self-propelled, electrically powered, four-wheeled motor vehicle which is emission free and conforms to the definition and requirements for low-speed vehicles as adopted in the federal motor vehicle safety standards for low-speed vehicles under federal regulations at 49 CFR part 571. An NEV shall be titled, registered and insured according to law as provided respectively in chapters 4, 5 and 12, title 49, Idaho Code, and shall only be operated by a licensed driver. Operation of an NEV on a highway shall be allowed as provided in section 49-663, Idaho Code.
(k)  Noncommercial vehicle. For the purposes of chapter 4, title 49, Idaho Code, motor vehicle registration, a noncommercial vehicle shall not include those vehicles required to be registered under sections 49-402 and 49-402A, Idaho Code, and means all other vehicles or combinations of vehicles which are not commercial vehicles or farm vehicles, but shall include motor homes. A noncommercial vehicle shall include those vehicles having a combined gross weight not in excess of sixty thousand (60,000) pounds and not held out for hire, used for purposes related to private use and not used in the furtherance of a business or occupation for compensation or profit or for transporting goods for other than the owner.
(l)  Passenger car. For the purposes of section 49-966, Idaho Code, a motor vehicle, except a multipurpose passenger vehicle, motorcycle or trailer, designed to carry ten (10) or fewer persons.
(m)  Rebuilt salvage vehicle or vessel. Every vehicle or vessel previously determined or declared to be a salvage vehicle that has been rebuilt or repaired using like make and model parts and visually appears as a vehicle or vessel that was originally constructed under a distinctive manufacturer. This includes a salvage vehicle or vessel which is damaged to the extent that a "rebuilt salvage" brand is required to be added to the title.
(n)  Replica vehicle or vessel. A vehicle or vessel made to replicate any vehicle or vessel previously manufactured, using metal, fiberglass or other composite materials. Replica vehicles must look like the original vehicle being replicated but may use a more modern drive train. At a minimum, replica vehicles shall meet the same federal motor vehicle safety and emission standards in effect for the year and type of vehicle being replicated.
(o)  Salvage vehicle or vessel. Any vehicle or vessel for which a salvage certificate of title, salvage bill of sale or other documentation has been issued showing evidence that the vehicle or vessel has been declared salvage or which has been damaged to the extent that the owner, or an insurer, or other person acting on behalf of the owner, determines that the cost of parts and labor minus the salvage value makes it uneconomical to repair or rebuild. When an insurance company has paid money or has made other monetary settlement as compensation for a total loss of any vehicle or vessel, such vehicle shall be considered to be a salvage vehicle or vessel.
(p)  Specially constructed vehicle or vessel. Every vehicle or vessel of a type required to be registered not originally constructed under a distinctive name, make, model or type by a generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles or vessels and not materially altered from its original construction and cannot be visually identified as a vehicle or vessel produced by a particular manufacturer. This includes:
(i)   A vehicle or vessel that has been structurally modified so that it does not have the same appearance as a similar vehicle or vessel from the same manufacturer; or
(ii)  A vehicle or vessel that has been constructed entirely from homemade parts and materials not obtained from other vehicles or vessels; or
(iii) A vehicle or vessel that has been constructed by using major component parts from one (1) or more manufactured vehicles or vessels and cannot be identified as a specific make or model; or
(iv)  A vehicle or vessel constructed by the use of a custom kit that cannot be visually identified as a specific make or model. All specially constructed vehicles of a type required to be registered shall be certified by the owner to meet all applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards in effect at the time construction is completed, and all requirements of chapter 9, title 49, Idaho Code.
(q)  Specialty off-highway vehicle. A specialty off-highway vehicle as defined in section 67-7101, Idaho Code.
(r)  Tank vehicle.
(i)  Any commercial motor vehicle transporting, or designed to transport, any liquid or gaseous materials within:
1.  A tank that is either permanently or temporarily attached or secured to the vehicle or chassis and has a rated capacity of one thousand (1,000) gallons or more; or
2.  Multiple tanks either permanently or temporarily attached or secured, when the aggregate rated capacity of those tanks is one thousand (1,000) gallons or more, as determined by adding the capacity of each individual tank with a capacity of more than one hundred nineteen (119) gallons.
(ii)  If a commercial motor vehicle transports one (1) or more tanks that are manifested either as empty or as residue and that are actually empty or contain only residue, those tanks shall not be considered in determining whether the vehicle is a tank vehicle.
(s)  Total loss vehicle. Every vehicle that is deemed to be uneconomical to repair. A total loss shall occur when an insurance company or any other person pays or makes other monetary settlement to the owner when it is deemed to be uneconomical to repair the damaged vehicle. The compensation for total loss as defined herein shall not include payments by an insurer or other person for medical care, bodily injury, vehicle rental or for anything other than the amount paid for the actual damage to the vehicle.
(3)  "Vehicle identification number." (See "identifying number," section 49-110, Idaho Code)
(4)  "Vehicle salesman" means any person who, for a salary, commission or compensation of any kind, is employed either directly or indirectly, or regularly or occasionally by any dealer to sell, purchase or exchange, or to negotiate for the sale, purchase or exchange of vehicles. (See also "full-time salesman," section 49-107, Idaho Code, and "part-time salesman," section 49-117, Idaho Code)
(5)  "Vessel." (See section 67-7003, Idaho Code)
(6)  "Veteran." (See section 65-502, Idaho Code)
(7)  "Violation" means a conviction of a misdemeanor charge involving a moving traffic violation, or an admission or judicial determination of the commission of an infraction involving a moving traffic infraction, except bicycle infractions.

History:
[49-123, added 1988, ch. 265, sec. 2, p. 569; am. 1989, ch. 285, sec. 4, p. 703; am. 1989, ch. 310, sec. 6, p. 777; am. 1989, ch. 318, sec. 2, p. 818; am. 1990, ch. 45, sec. 10, p. 83; am. 1990, ch. 295, sec. 1, p. 815; am. 1991, ch. 272, sec. 5, p. 692; am. 1991, ch. 288, sec. 2, p. 741; am. 1992, ch. 115, sec. 4, p. 351; am. 1993, ch. 376, sec. 1, p. 1377; am. 1994, ch. 296, sec. 1, p. 934; am. 1995, ch. 122, sec. 2, p. 528; am. 1996, ch. 308, sec. 1, p. 1010; am. 1997, ch. 355, sec. 1, p. 1047; am. 1999, ch. 298, sec. 1, p. 746; am. 2000, ch. 469, sec. 110, p. 1566; am. 2002, ch. 160, sec. 3, p. 470; am. 2005, ch. 183, sec. 3, p. 562; am. 2006, ch. 51, sec. 18, p. 159; am. 2008, ch. 84, sec. 1, p. 215; am. 2008, ch. 198, sec. 4, p. 636; am. 2008, ch. 330, sec. 2, p. 904; am. 2009, ch. 11, sec. 18, p. 28; am. 2009, ch. 157, sec. 5, p. 462; am. 2014, ch. 38, sec. 3, p. 70; am. 2014, ch. 91, sec. 2, p. 245.]

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