Idaho Statutes

22-2005.  Definitions. When used in this chapter:
(1)  "Acceptable level" means the probable level of harm that is so low that the imposition of phytosanitary requirements is not required; or the probable level of harm that the trade partners agree to achieve through or by the imposition of pest risk mitigation measures or strategies and accept for continued trade when confirmed by phytosanitary certification of specified host commodities.
(2)  "Agent" means any person who on behalf of any other person receives on consignment, contracts for, or solicits for sale on commission, any plant product from a producer of such product, or who negotiates the consignment or purchase of any plant product on behalf of any other person.
(3)  "Agricultural commodities" means plant products including any horticultural product.
(4)  "Agriculture" means the production of plants.
(5)  "Appliance" means any box, tray, container, ladder, tent vehicle, implement or other article which is, or may be, used in connection with the growing, harvesting, handling or transportation of any agricultural commodity.
(6)  "Area" means any political division or subdivision or any officially defined area including adjacent parts of contiguous political divisions or subdivisions. Political divisions include nations and states or provinces within nations and states. Political subdivisions include counties, parishes and cities or municipalities. Officially defined areas also may include any other clearly defined and identifiable area including a specific property or facility.
(7)  "Certificate" means a document authorized or prepared by a duly authorized federal or state regulatory official that affirms, declares or verifies that an article, nursery stock, plant product, shipment or any other officially regulated article meets phytosanitary, quarantine, nursery inspection, pest freedom, plant registration or certification, or other set of legal requirements. Such documents are known by their purpose of issuance: phytosanitary certificate, for the purpose of verifying compliance with phytosanitary or quarantine requirements; nursery stock certificate, for the purpose of verifying compliance with nursery inspection and pest freedom standards; registration or certification tags and seals, for the purpose of verifying compliance with registration or certification requirements.
(8)  "Certification" means the official act of affirming, declaring or verifying compliance with phytosanitary, quarantine, nursery inspection, pest freedom, plant registration or any other set of legal requirements.
(9)  "Compliance agreement" means any written agreement between a person and a duly authorized regulatory agency to achieve compliance with any set of requirements being enforced by the agency.
(10) "Control" means abatement, suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population.
(11) "Control order" means a written directive from the director requiring the control of a pest.
(12) "Conveyance" means a method of transportation.
(13) "Crop management area" means that area in which certain specified crop management practices are required.
(14) "Crop seed" means the seed or seedlike fruit of grain, beans, flax, beets, onions or any other crop whether or not it is intended for planting purposes.
(15) "Department" means the Idaho state department of agriculture.
(16) "Director" means the director of the Idaho state department of agriculture or his duly authorized representative.
(17) "Economic impacts" means significant damage or harm in terms of well documented:
(a)  Plant or crop destruction or injury;
(b)  Increased cultural or pest control costs;
(c)  Disruption of existing pest control strategies such as biological control, integrated pest management, sustainable agriculture or forestry, and cropping patterns or loss of a high value crop without replacement by an equally valuable and marketable crop;
(d)  Social adversities such as interference with home or urban gardening, human health, worker safety, food safety or jobs; or
(e)  Environmental quality including added pesticide use, scenic and watershed damage, destruction of ecosystems and food chain interference.
(18) "Economically unacceptable impact" means that level of adverse economic impact which is identified and defined for plants for planting by a duly authorized federal or state plant protection organization.
(19) "Endangered area" means continent, region, country, state, county, province, municipality or any other delineated political or otherwise lawfully constituted geographic area which has been officially identified for protection from injurious pests not already present.
(20) "Eradication" means elimination of a pest based on absence determined by a negative, mutually agreed upon verification survey for the target pest.
(21) "Farm product" includes, but is not limited to, every agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, apicultural, floricultural and vegetable product, including honey bees.
(22) "Free from" means that either a valid detection survey has been performed or there is no published record showing that a specific pest is present; or that the article, nursery stock, plant, plant product or any other regulated article has been visually inspected or tested in accordance with specified requirements and that no live life stage of the regulated pest(s) was found.
(23) "Grain" means any crop seed intended for human or animal consumption.
(24) "Hold order or stop sale" means any written directive issued by the director to a person who owns or controls any appliance, article, nursery stock, plant, plant product or any other article that has been determined to be, or likely to be, infested with regulated pest(s) or otherwise not in compliance with this chapter or rules promulgated hereunder, prohibiting movement from one location to another, except as otherwise prescribed in the directive.
(25) "Host" means any appliance, article, commodity, nursery stock, plant, plant product or any other item which may or may not be capable of transporting a pest from one place to another.
(26) "Infected" means a plant that has been determined by the department to be contaminated with an infectious, transmissible, or contagious plant pest, or so exposed to the aforementioned that contamination can reasonably be expected to exist. This includes disease conditions, regardless of their mode of transmission, or any disorder of plants which manifest symptoms which, after investigation, are determined by a federal or state plant protection organization to be characteristic of an infectious, transmissible or contagious disease.
(27) "Infested" means a plant that has been determined by the department to be contaminated by a plant pest, or so exposed to the aforementioned that contamination can reasonably be expected to exist.
(28) "Investigator" means any person duly authorized by the director to perform any required regulatory activity.
(29) "Limited distribution" means a pest known to occur in the state, but with a limited distribution to a single small geographic area or a few small geographic areas which are widely separated within the state.
(30) "Management area" means that area in which certain specified crop management practices are required.
(31) "Mark" means, for purposes of identification or separation, the department may affix a conspicuous official indicator to, on, around or near, plants or plant material known, or suspected to be, infected or infested with a plant pest. This includes, but is not limited to: paint, markers, tags, seals, stickers, tape, signs or placards.
(32) "Move" means to ship, offer for shipment, receive for transport, carry or, in any manner whatsoever, relocate a regulated article from one place to another.
(33) "Nursery stock" means all plants or any part thereof, such as aquatic or herbaceous plants, bulbs, sod, buds, corms, culms, roots, scions, grafts, cuttings, fruit pits, seeds of fruits, forest and ornamental trees and shrubs, berry plants, and all trees, shrubs, vines, and plants collected in the wild that are grown or kept for propagation or sale. The term does not include field and forage crops, seeds of grasses, cereal grains, vegetable crops and flower crops, bulbs and tubers of vegetable crops, vegetable crops, vegetables or fruit used for food or feed, cut trees or cut flowers unless stems or other portions thereof are intended for propagation.
(34) "Official" means authorized, implemented and directed, or performed by a government plant protection organization.
(35) "Officially controlled" means the conduct, by an official government plant protection organization, of eradication or intensive suppression activity including various treatments, quarantine and other measures with the goal of eliminating an isolated infestation or prevention of further spread within the endangered area. It does not include private general agricultural, urban forestry or home garden pest control measures conducted by persons against pests permanently established in an endangered area.
(36) "Owner" means the person, with the legal right of possession, proprietorship of, or responsibility for the property or place where any of the regulated articles as defined in this chapter are to be found, or the person who is in possession of, in proprietorship of, or has responsibility for the regulated articles.
(37) "Pathway" means any natural or artificial means or avenue that allows for the movement of a pest from one area to another.
(38) "Permit" means any official document that allows the movement of any regulated article from one location to another in accordance with specified conditions or requirements and for a specified purpose.
(39) "Person" means, but is not limited to, any individual, partnership, corporation, company, firm, society, association, organization, government agency or any other entity.
(40) "Pest" means any insect, snail, rodent, nematode, fungus, virus, bacterium, microorganism, mycoplasma-like organism, weed, plant, or parasitic higher plant and any other pest as defined by rule or any of the following that is known to cause damage or harm to agriculture or the environment:
(a)  Any infectious, transmissible or contagious disease of any plant; or any disorder of any plant which manifests symptoms or behavior which, after investigation and hearing, is found and determined by a duly constituted federal, state or local plant protection organization, to be characteristic of an infectious, transmissible or contagious disease;
(b)  Any form of invertebrate animal life;
(c)  Any form of plant life.
(41) "Pest-free area" means an area kept free from a specific pest.
(42) "Pest risk analysis" means characterizing the nature of pest hazard or harm; identifying the degree of probability or likelihood of harm; analyzing the degree to which risk mitigation measures or strategies can reduce the probability of harm to an acceptable level; and recommending pest risk mitigation measures or strategies.
(43) "Phytosanitary" means plant health.
(44) "Phytosanitary measures" means any growing season or postharvest treatment or any other method (tactic) or strategy (combination of methods or tactics) specified in a quarantine to reduce pest risk to an acceptable level.
(45) "Plant" means any part of a plant, tree, aquatic plant, plant product, plant material, shrub, vine, fruit, rhizome, sod, vegetable, seed, bulb, stolon, tuber, corm, pip, cutting, scion, bud, graft or fruit pit, also including:
(a)  Agricultural commodities;
(b)  Noncultivated or feral plants gathered from the environment;
(c)  Plants produced by tissue culture, cloning or from stem cell cultures or other prepared media culture.
(46) "Plants for planting" means any part of a plant that is intended to be planted.
(47) "Preclearance" means an agreement between quarantine officials of exporting and importing states or countries to pass plants through quarantine by allowing the exporting state or country to inspect the plants preshipment, rather than the importing state or country inspecting the shipment upon arrival.
(48) "Public nuisance" means any premises, plant, appliance, conveyance or article which is infected or infested with any plant pest that may cause significant damage or harm, or premises where any plant pest is found.
(49) "Quarantine" means a restriction imposed by a duly authorized plant regulatory agency whereby the production, movement or existence of plants, or any other article or material, or the normal activity of persons, is brought under regulation, in order that the introduction or spread of a pest may be prevented or limited, or in order that a pest already introduced may be controlled or eradicated, thereby reducing or avoiding losses that would otherwise occur through damage done by the pest or through continuing cost of control measures.
(50) "Quarantine pest" means a pest of economically unacceptable impact to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled.
(51) "Registration" means the official recording of a growing location, person, plant, sales location or any other item or place as one that has met specified requirements and therefore eligible for a particular activity, operation or purpose.
(52) "Regulated article" means any item the movement of which is governed by a quarantine or any other rule.
(53) "Regulated nonquarantine pest" means a nonquarantine pest whose presence affects the intended use of plants with an economically unacceptable impact.
(54) "Regulated pest" means quarantine pest or regulated nonquarantine pest.
(55) "Regulated or restricted area" means a geographical area in which special restrictions on the management of certain plant materials are imposed.
(56) "Regulatory incident" means the detection of a pest under circumstances which indicate the absence of establishment.
(57) "Restrictive measure" means a phytosanitary measure allowing only specified actions that are subject to certain requirements.
(58) "Shipment" means anything which is, may be, or has been transported from one place to another.
(59) "Significant damage or harm" means that level of economic impact that results in damage, injury or loss that exceeds the cost of control for a particular crop.
(60) "State plant regulatory official" means the employee(s) designated to enforce the provisions of a state’s plant pest laws, quarantines and rules.
(61) "State quarantine" means a rule promulgated pursuant to state authority that identifies a pest or pests and imposes requirements for certification of regulated articles as being in compliance with specified restrictions or requirements for pest freedom.
(62) "Suppressive area" means a plant pest infested area where phytosanitary measures are being applied to reduce the plant pest population and thereby limit the spread of the pest.
(63) "Survey" means the systematic search for pests in accordance with mutually agreed upon methods designed to assure confidence in their meaning and accuracy for pest prevention purposes such as control, verification of pest-free areas, identification of possible harm, evaluation of probability of harm, and taking appropriate actions to prevent predicted significant harm. Surveys may be performed for the purposes of detection, delimitation or verification.
(64) "Undesirable plant" means any plant species which is detrimental to the quality of the product of that crop, by competition, cross-pollination, or any other means to the production of the crop for which a crop management area was established.

[22-2005, added 2002, ch. 89, sec. 2, p. 212.]

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